We have no right to keep whales and dolphins in captivity!
"Keeping dolphins in captivity violates EU legislation that is supposed to . protect these animals.
It is supposed to encourage conservation, yet dolphin survival rates are lower in captivity than in the wild
It is supposed to promote education about animals, yet little information is given at dolphin shows in the EU about their lives in the wild
It is supposed to prevent cruelty to animals and look after their welfare, yet stress and disturbing behaviour is common amongst dolphins displayed in dolphinaria within the 15 Member States of the EU who are failing to implement EU legislation properly.
We have no right to keep whales and dolphins in captivity.
We want to make the European Union a dolphinarium-free zone
We are calling for:
The European Council of Ministers and the European Commission to take urgent steps to protect whales and dolphins in captivity in the EU
A ban on the import of wild-caught dolphins into the EU
Member States to enact strict legislation for the keeping of these animals in captivity and enact plans to phase out national dolphinaria and not grant permits for the construction of any new dolphinaria.
*12 European Union (EU) States don't keep these animals in captivity but 15 do.
These 15 States alone are home to 35 captive dolphin facilities (or dolphinaria) displaying a reported 289 small whales, dolphins and porpoises.
Displaying these animals to the public in circus-style shows may seem like fun, but there is a sad truth behind these shows.
Although there are a number of different pieces of legislation safeguarding wild whales and dolphins in the EU only the EU Zoos Directive (EC Directive 1999/22) provides captive whales and dolphins with any form of EU-wide protection. By requiring that Member States ensure the zoos in their countries operate for the benefit of biodiversity, zoos, including dolphinaria, must meet certain conditions in terms of conservation and education and they must keep the animals under conditions that provide them with their natural biological needs which is simply impossible for whales and dolphins.
* The 12 countries without dolphinaria are: Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Luxembourg, Poland, Republic of Ireland, Slovakia, Slovenia and the United Kingdom."
WDC Dolphinarium From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Adolphinariumis anaquariumfordolphins. The dolphins are usually kept in a large pool, though occasionally they may be kept in pens in the open sea, either for research or for public performances. Some dolphinariums consist of one pool where dolphins perform for the public, others are part of larger parks, such asmarine mammal parks,zoosortheme parks, keeping other animals and having other attractions as well.
While cetaceans have been held in captivity since the 1860s, the first commercial dolphinarium was opened only in 1938. Their popularity increased rapidly until the 1960s. Since the 1970s, increasing concern for animal welfare led to stricter regulation, which in several countries ultimately resulted in the closure of all dolphinariums in the past decades. Despite this trend, dolphinariums are still widely spread in Europe, Japan and North America.
The most common species of dolphin kept in dolphinariums is Bottlenose Dolphins as they are relatively easy to train and have a long lifespan in captivity. While the trade in dolphins is internationally regulated, other aspects of keeping dolphins in captivity such as the minimum size and characteristics of pools vary among countries. Though animal welfare is perceived to have improved significantly over the last few decades, many animal rights and welfare groups still consider keeping dolphins captive to be a form of animal abuse.
The exterior of the Boudewijn Seaparkdolphinarium in Bruges, Belgium Though cetaceans have been held in captivity in both North America and Europe since the 1860s, the first being a pair of Beluga Whales in the New York museum, dolphins were first kept for paid entertainment in the Marine Studios dolphinarium founded in 1938 inSt. Augustine, Florida. It was here that it was discovered that dolphins could be trained to perform tricks. Recognizing the success of Marine Studios, more dolphinariums keeping dolphins for entertainment followed. In the 1960s, keeping dolphins in zoos and aquariums for entertainment purposes increased in popularity after the 1963 Flipper movie and subsequent Flipper television series. In 1966, the first dolphin was exported to Europe. In these early days, dolphinariums could grow quickly due to a lack of legislation and lack of concern for animal welfare.
New legislation, most notably the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act in the United States, combined with a more critical view on animal welfare forced many dolphinariums around the world to close. In 1985 Australia banned the display of all cetaceans. Another prominent example is the United Kingdom, where despite that during the early 1970s there were at least 36 dolphinariums and travelling dolphin shows, the last dolphinarium closed its doors in 1993. The last dolphinarium in Hungary was closed in 1992, and any future dolphin imports were prohibited. In 2005 both Chile and Costa Rica prohibited keeping cetaceans captive. However, around 60 dolphinariums currently exist across Europe of which 34 within the EU.Japan, Mexico and the United States are also home to a relatively large number of dolphinariums.
Many varied designs exist, but an often found basic dolphinarium design for public performances consists of stands for the public around a semi-circular pool, sometimes with glass walls which allow underwater viewing, and a platform in the middle from which the trainers direct and present the show.
The water in the pools has to be constantly filtered to keep it clean for the dolphins and the spectators, and the temperature and composition of the water has to be controlled to match the conditions dolphins experience in the wild. In the absence of a common international regulation, guidelines regarding the minimum size of the pools vary between countries. To give an indication of pool sizes, the European Association for Aquatic Mammals recommends that a pool for five dolphins should have a surface area of 275 m2 (2,960 sq ft) plus an additional 75 m2 (810 sq ft) for every additional animal, have a depth of 3.5 m (11 ft) for at least the minimum surface area and have a water volume of at least 1,000 m3 (35,000 cu ft) with an additional 200 m3 (7,100 cu ft) for every additional animal. If two of these three conditions are met and the third is not more than 10% below standard, the EAAM considers the pool size to be acceptable.
Species Various species of dolphins are kept in captivity and also several other small whale species such as Harbour Porpoises, Finless Porpoises and Belugas, though in those cases the word dolphinarium may not be fitting as these are not true dolphins. Bottlenose Dolphins are the most common species of dolphin kept in dolphinariums: they are relatively easy to train, have a long lifespan in captivity and a friendly appearance. Hundreds if not thousands of Bottlenose Dolphins live in captivity across the world, though exact numbers are hard to give. Orcas are well known for their performances in shows, but the number of Orcas kept in captivity is very small especially when compared to the number of bottlenose dolphins, with only 44 captive orcas being held in aquaria as of 2012. Of all Orcas kept in captivity, the majority are located in the various SeaWorld parks in the United States. Other species kept in captivity are Spotted Dolphins, False Killer Whales and Common Dolphins, Commerson's Dolphins, and Rough-toothed Dolphins, but all in much lower numbers than the Bottlenose Dolphin. Also kept, but in numbers of less than ten are Pilot Whales, Amazon River Dolphins, Risso's Dolphins, Spinner Dolphins, and Tucuxi. Two unusual and very rare hybrid dolphins known as Wolphins are kept at the Sea Life Park in Hawaii, which are a cross between a Bottlenose Dolphin and a False Killer Whale. Also two Common/Bottlenose hybrids reside in captivity one at Discovery Cove and the other SeaWorld San Diego.
Trade and capture Dolphin being loaded on to a truck after having been captured in a drive hunt in Futo, Japan. In the early days, many bottlenose dolphins were wild caught off the coast of Florida where they are common. Though the Marine Mammal Protection Act, established in 1972, allows an exception for the collection of dolphins for public display and research purposes providing a permit is obtained, Bottlenose dolphins have not been captured in American waters since 1989. In most Western countries, breeding programmes have been set up to provide the dolphinariums with new animals. To achieve a sufficient birth rate and to prevent inbreeding, artificial insemination (AI) is occasionally used. The use of AI also allows dolphinariums to increase the genetic diversity of their population without having to bring in any dolphins from other facilities.
The trade of dolphins is regulated by CITES. Endangered dolphin species are included in CITES’ Appendix I, in which case trade is permitted only in exceptional circumstances. Species considered not to be threatened with extinction are included in Appendix II, in which case trade “must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival”. Most cetacean species traded for display in captivity to the public or for use in swimming with dolphins and other interaction programmes are listed on Appendix II.
Live dolphins are still traded however. A live Bottlenose Dolphin is estimated to cost between a few thousand and several tens of thousands of US dollars, depending on age, condition and prior training. Captures are reported to be on the rise in the South Pacific and the Caribbean,Cuba has also been an exporter of dolphins in recent years, this being organised by the Acuario Nacional de Cuba. In recent years, the Solomon Islands have also allowed the collection and export of dolphins for public display facilities. A 2005 law banned the export of dolphins, however this ban has been seemingly overturned when in 2007 some 28 dolphins were shipped to Dubai. Some, mainly Japanese, dolphinariums obtain their dolphins from local drive hunts, though several other countries in Asia also import dolphins from Japan. Several American dolphinariums have also done so in the past, however not since 1993 when the US National Marine Fisheries Service refused a permit for Marine World Africa USA to import four False Killer Whales caught in a Japanese drive hunt.
Criticism Animal welfare The Festa Dolphinarium in Varna, Bulgaria Though animal welfare is perceived to have improved significantly over the last few decades, many animal rights and welfare groups such as the WSPA still consider keeping dolphins at dolphinariums a form of animal abuse. The main arguments are that dolphins do not have enough freedom of movement in pools, regardless of pool size, (in the wild, dolphins swim hundreds of miles every day) and do not get enough stimulation. Dolphins often show repetitive behavior in captivity and sometimes become aggressive towards other animals or people. In some cases, the behavior of dolphins in captivity also results in their own death.
The lifespan of dolphins in captivity is another subject of debate. Research has shown that Orcas indeed have a much lower survival rate in captivity; however, there is no significant difference between wild and captive survival rates for Bottlenose dolphins. This does not, however, reflect a global state of affairs: for example, Bottlenose dolphins in captive facilities inJamaica suffer from extremely high mortality rates.
In response to criticism, dolphinariums often stress that every effort is being made to ensure the well-being of the animals, who are being cared for with state-of-the-art medical technology (including some adapted from that used for humans). Many dolphinariums are also involved in research and education programs, assist in cases of beachings, and provide aid to sick or injured wild animals.
In 2003, Jane Tipson, an animal rights activist working in Saint Lucia was murdered in an apparent contract killing alleged to be related to her work against the establishment of new dolphinariums in the Caribbean.
As health therapyCaptive dolphins are an increasingly popular choice of animal-assisted therapy for humans with psychological problems and developmental disabilities. For example, a 2005 study of 30 participants found that dolphin-assisted therapy was an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression. However, this study was criticized on several grounds: for example, it is not known whether dolphins are more effective than common pets.Reviews of this and other published dolphin-assisted therapy (DAT) studies have found important methodological flaws, leading reviewers to conclude that there is no compelling scientific evidence that DAT is a legitimate therapy, or that it affords any more than fleeting improvements in human mood.
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